The particular in-depth study of Art associated with Translation demands more attention not really because it paves way for global discussion and offers an excellent opportunity to undergo socio-cultural survey of various languages and their literatures but also gives an opportunity to set up some kind of relevance it has in the research and area of Literary Criticism. Interpretation Studies can very safely be included as an important genre in the domain of Literary Criticism given that translation is an art prompting to peep into the diversified lingual, ethnic and literary content of a source language and thus highlighting/appreciating the importance and niceties of the literature of the particular translated language. In the framework of Indian Studies, keeping because the multilingual and pluristic cultural nature of our country, translation posseses an important role to play. It is through translation that we can look into the rich historical past of India as one integrated device and feel proud of our social legacy. The relevance of translation as multifaceted and a multidimensional exercise and its international importance as a socio-cultural bridge between countries has grown over the years. In the present day circumstances when things are fast moving ahead globally, not only countries and societies need to interact with each other closely, but individuals as well need to have contact with members of additional communities/societies that are spread over various areas of the country/world. In order to cater to these types of needs translation has become an important exercise that satisfies individual, societal and national needs.
It goes without saying that the significance and relevance of translation within our daily life is multidimensional and substantial. It is through translation we know about all the developments in communication and technology and keep abreast of the latest breakthroughs in the various fields of knowledge, and also have access through translation to the literary works of several languages and to the different events happening in the world. India has had close links with ancient civilisations such as Greek, Egyptian and Chinese language. This interactive relationship would have been impossible without the knowledge of the various different languages spoken by the different communities plus nations. This is how human beings realised the importance of translation long ago. Needless to mentiuon here that the relevance and significance of translation has increased greatly in today’s fast changing world. Today with the developing zest for knowledge in human being minds there is a great need of translation in the fields of education, science and technology, mass conversation, trade and business, literature, religious beliefs, tourism, etc .
Generally, translation turns a text associated with source language(SL) into a correct plus understandable version of target language(TL)without losing the suggestion of the original. Many people think that being bilingual is that is needed to be a translator. That is not true. Being bilingual is an important requirement, no doubt, but translation skills are made and developed on the basis of one’s personal long drawn-out communicative and writing experiences in both the languages. In fact translation is a process based on the concept of extracting the meaning of a textual content from its present form and reproduce that with different form of a second language.
Conventionally, it is suggested that translators should meet three requirements, namely: 1) Familiarity with the source language, 2) Understanding of the target language, and 3) Understanding of the subject matter to perform the job successfully. Based on this concept, the ¨¹bersetzungsprogramm discovers the meaning behind the types in the source language (SL) and does his best to reproduce the same meaning in the target language (TL) utilizing the TL forms and structures to the best of his knowledge. Naturally and supposedly what changes is the type and the code and what should remain unchanged is the meaning and the message (Larson, 1984). Therefore , one may detect the most common definition of translation, i. electronic., the selection of the nearest equivalent to get a language unit in the SL inside a target language.
Computers are already being utilized to translate one language directly into another, but humans are still active in the process either through pre-writing or post-editing. There is no way that a computer may ever be able to translate languages the way in which a human being could since language uses metaphor/imagery to convey a particular meaning. Translating is more than simply looking up a few terms in a dictionary. A quality translation requires a thorough knowledge of both the source language and the target language.
Translation Concept, Practice and Process
Successful translation is indicative of how closely it lives up to the expectations as: reproducing exactly as for as possible the meaning of the source text, using natural kinds of the receptor/target language in such a way being appropriate to the kind of text getting translated and expressing all aspects of the meaning closely and readily understandable to the intended audience/reader. Technically, interpretation is a process to abstract the meaning of a text from its current forms and reproduce that meaning in various forms of another language. Translation has been recognised as an independent field of study. The translator can be said to be the focal element in the process of translation. The writer/author becomes the centre, for whatever he produces will be final, and no two translators translate a text in the same way. It is genegally believed that a writer to find out the intricacies of the TL by which he may wish to translate. As a matter of fact, it is not the writer of the SL text who asks someone to translate his works into the TL; it is mainly the interest of the individual translator which prompts him to translate a work into his mother tongue. A successful translator is not a mechanical translator of a text but is creative too. We may say that he is a co-creator of the TL text.. In fact , to get a translator knowledge of two or more languages is important. This involves not only a working knowledge of 2 different languages but also the knowledge associated with two linguistic systems as furthermore their literature and culture. Such translators have been seen to possess various qualities which we shall quickly discuss later.
Linguiustically, translation contains studying the lexicon, grammatical structure, communication situation, and cultural framework of the source language and its text, analyzing it in order to determine its meaning, and then reconstructing the same meaning using the lexicon and grammatical structure which are appropriate in the target vocabulary and its cultural context. The process of interpretation starts with the comprehension of the source text closely and after discovering the meaning of the text, translator re-expresses this is he has drawn out into the receptor/target vocabulary in such a way that there is minimal loss within the transformation of meaning into the translated language. This entire process might be graphed as under: –
Overview of the translation task
In practice, almost always there is considerable variation in the types of translations produced by various translators of a specific text. This is because translation is essentially an Art and not Science. So many factors including proficiency in language, cultural background, writing flair etc . determine the standard of translation and it is because of that simply no two translations seem to be alike if not averse.
Accommodation in Translation
Interpretation turns a communication in one vocabulary into a correct and understandable edition of that communication in another vocabulary. Sometimes a translator has to take certain liberties with the original text in order to re-create the mood and style of the original. This, in other words is known as ‘accommodation. ‘ This has three measurements: cultural accommodation; collocation accommodation; ideological accommodation; and aesthetic accommodation. Lodging is considered a synonym of adaptation which means changes are made so the focus on text produced is in line with all the spirit of the original. Translation is not really merely linguistic conversion or modification between languages but it involves accommodation in scope of culture, national politics, aesthetics, and many other factors. Accommodation is also translation, a free, rather than literal, type of translation. Moreover, it is inevitable used if the translation is to maintain the supply message’s essence, impact, and effect. There is an interesting saying: A translation is like a woman: if it is faithful, it is far from beautiful; if it is beautiful, it is not faithful. That is to say if you want to be faithful with the text while translating you are bound to lose the beauty of the translated textual content and if you try to maintain the beauty of the translated text you are sure to become unfaithful with the original text.. Faithfulness was once considered the iron guideline in translation process but through the years when we take a closer look, accommodation, or adaptation, is found in most published translations and it has become a necessity as well since keeping in view the averse cultural/lingual/geographical/historical/political diversifications and backgrounds of numerous languages and their literatures, lodging, if not compromising, is almost obligatory. Accommodation, too, has to be carried out very sensibly, more especially when it comes to translating beautifully constructed wording or any such text which is highly immotive and artistic in nature. For example translating poetry has never been therefore simple. Robert Frost once said, “Poetry is what gets lost within translation. ” This is a sufficient evidence of the difficulty involved in translation of poems. Because poetry is fundamentally precious for its aesthetic value, therefore , visual accommodation becomes an art instead of a fundamental requirement. A good poetry translator with a good measure of accommodation and adequate understanding of aesthetic traditions of different cultures and languages, can be better appreciated from the target reader and can achieve the required effect.
Qualities of a good Translator
A good translator should have adequate understanding of the SL(source language) from which he is translating into the TL which is generally his mother toungue/target language. To be able to produce an accurate translation of the SL text he should have command on the grammatical, syntactic, semantic and practical features of the SL. In addition to this it is vital that he is well-conversant with the socio-cultural contexts of both the SL and the TL. A good translator should be the author’s mouthpiece in a way that he knows plus comprehends fully whatever the original writer has said in his text. One of the usually accepted characteristics of a good translation is that it should resemble the original textual content or come as close to the SL text as possible. It should appear like the initial in the TL translation within the normal social and cultural settings with some minor accommodation, if necessary, of course.
Generally it is also believed that the job of a translator is a mechanical one-an easy rendering of the SL text right into a TL text. But it is not so. The translator has to perform a really difficult task. It is in a way more difficult plus complicated than that of the original article writer. A creative writer composes or pens down his thoughts without any outward compulsion. A translator has to confine himself not only to the SL textual content but a host of other factors also get involved in the process of translating the TL.
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A good translator must have an adequate knowledge of the subject or area to which the SL text relates so that the ¨¹bersetzungsprogramm is able to capture the spirit of the SL text. If he don’t have an in-depth knowledge, he may not be able to produce an accurate translation ideal for its intended purpose. For example , if you need to translate the Bible or the Gita or any other religious text, you must have adequate knowledge of those religious plus theological works.
A good translator ought to be careful of the choices that he can make in using the TL. He ought to translate in the style, which is appropriate for the target audience. The style ought to be such that it appears to be natural and spontaneous to the TK readers. The translation in the TL should not sound alien.
A translator does need certain equipment to help him out in times of difficulty. These tools can be in the form of good monolingual and bilingual dictionaries, encyclopedias, e-dictionaries, glossaries of specialized and standard works, etc . pertaining to the SL text.
A good ¨¹bersetzungsprogramm must have patience and should not be in a hurry to rush through while translating any text. He should not be reluctant in discussing with others the issues that he may come across. Morever, he should not shy away from conducting micro-research in order to arrive at proper and appropriate equivalents.
In short, a good translator should be a competent and proficient bilingual, familiar with the subject/area of the SL text chosen for translation. He should never try to insert his own ideas or even personal impressions in the TL textual content. His objective should be to convey the content and the intent of the SL textual content as exactly as possible into the TL text. The job of a translator is very rewarding and intellectually stimulating
Lastly, a few words(based upon my close up understanding about translation study plus activity) for up-coming translators plus translation-lovers. To translate from one vocabulary into another has never been an easy practice. It is an exercise both painstaking and cumbersome and only those who have engaged by themselves with translation work can recognize the complex character of this Art. I have been associated with translation work for over three decades translating from English, more especially, from Kashmiri/Urdu into Hindi and back.
1-A good translator ought to be a good writer.
2-You need not translate everything that has been written, you should translate the best only.
4-A great translator adjusts/accommodates and not compromises using the original text.
5-Translators are like ambassadors representing and exchanging the best of their literary world.
5-Art of interpretation is as old as makind, don’t you translate your thought before you talk it out? Some more suggestions:
1-Try to get into the mind of the writer.
2-Check your translation twice or may be thrice before finalizing the screenplay. Put the original passage “aside” and listen to/read your translation with your ear “tuned in”, as if this were a passage originally composed in the TL.
3-If your material is highly technical, with vocabulary that is distinctive to a discipline, it is important that this translator has at least some background or experience of that discipline. A great translator of poetry and theatre may be a bad choice for a chemical engineering or biotechnology text.
4-If you have a native speaker of your target language handy, particularly one who is familiar with the subject, that person could be as useful as your teacher for final script-review. Take his assistance without fail.